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A trapped piece is a piece that cannot move without getting captured (or traded disadvantageously). Typically, trapped pieces are surrounded by pieces of the same color, defended foes of lower value, or squares controlled by the enemy.

a b c d e f g h
8 a8 b8 c8 d8 e8 f8 g8 h8 8
7 a7 b7 c7 d7 e7 p f7 g7 h7 7
6 a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6 6
5 a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5 5
4 a4 b4 c4 d4 k e4 f4 g4 h4 P 4
3 a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 P~ h3 3
2 a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 f2 P g2 ~~ h2 b 2
1 a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 f1 K g1 x h1 1
a b c d e f g h
1.g3 traps the bishop (between h2 and g1).
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