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a b c d e f g h
8 a8 r b8 n c8 b d8 q e8 k f8 b g8 n h8 r 8
7 a7 p b7 p c7 d7 p e7 f7 p g7 p h7 p 7
6 a6 b6 c6 d6 P~ e6 p f6 g6 h6 6
5 a5 b5 c5 p d5 ~~ e5 f5 g5 h5 5
4 a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4 4
3 a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3 3
2 a2 P b2 P c2 P d2 e2 P f2 P g2 P h2 P 2
1 a1 R b1 N c1 B d1 Q e1 K f1 B g1 N h1 R 1
a b c d e f g h
White's d-pawn is severely overextended. The only feasible move that can temporarily defend it is 4.Bf5. It will be captured by black in several moves.

Overextended pawns are pawns that have advanced too far forward. These pawns are a liability since they are difficult to defend.

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