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a b c d e f g h
8 a8 b8 K c8 d8 e8 R f8 g8 h8 8
7 a7 b7 P c7 P d7 e7 f7 P g7 h7 7
6 a6 P b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 P h6 6
5 a5 b5 c5 d5 P e5 f5 g5 p h5 5
4 a4 b4 c4 d4 p e4 R f4 g4 h4 4
3 a3 b3 p c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3 P 3
2 a2 p b2 k c2 p d2 e2 f2 p g2 h2 p 2
1 a1 b1 c1 r d1 e1 f1 g1 h1 r 1
a b c d e f g h
White controls the open d-file and can easily attack pieces (the pawn on e5). Black's rooks, who cannot take control (1. ...Rad8 2.Rxd8) can only react to white's attack with moves such as 1. ...Rfe8.

An open file is a file with no pawns. Rooks and queens can take advantage of the space (hence the term "open") and manuever up and down the file to attack Backwards pawns and hanging pawns.

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